The human eye is one of the most valuable and sensitive sense organ that we possess. We usually take our vision for granted, but the eye is one of the most complex organs in the human body.
The retina is the light-sensitive layer of tissue at the back of the inner eye. It absorbs light and sends visual signals to the brain, where they are processed into images. At the back of the eye, directly in line with the pupil, is an area of the retina called the macula. The area located in the center of the macula is the fovea, a shallow depression that has the highest visual acuity. The center of vision is focused in this region.
The macula (and in particular the fovea) is the most sensitive part of the retina, filled predominantly with retinal cones (light sensitive cells). One of the photoreceptors in the retina, these cones are responsible for daylight and color vision, allowing for central vision that is crisp, clear, and detailed. Any condition that impairs this area of the retina will adversely affect central vision and ultimately impair the ability to perform many activities that are important to daily life.
The vitreous is a clear jelly-like substance within the eye that takes up the space behind the lens and in front of the retina. Water makes up 99% of the vitreous, with macromolecules such as hyaluronic acid, proteins, and collagens making up the rest.
The outer part of the vitreous (the vitreous cortex) contains the highest concentration of collagen. The vitreous is attached to the retina by a matrix of fibers, including fibronectin, laminin, and collagen. The attachment is stronger in places such as the equator of the eye and over the macula. Additional areas of adhesion occur along the inner limiting membrane of the retina, the optic nerve, and blood vessels of the retina.